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Bruno Majić1, Barbara Gilic1, Milea Ajduk-Kurtović2, Mate Brekalo2, Dorica Šajber3

1University of Split, Faculty of Kinesiology, Split, Croatia
2University of Mostar, Faculty of Mathematics and Science Education, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Physical Literacy Levels in the Croatian Adult Population; Gender Differences and Associations with Participation in Organized Physical Activity

Sport Mont 2024, 22(2), 33-38 | DOI: 10.26773/smj.240705


Physical literacy (PL) is the foundation for lifelong participation in physical activity. Most previous research concentrated on PL examinations in younger groups, while such research is scarce in the adult population. This study aimed to determine the PL levels of the Croatian adult population. Also, the aim was to investigate whether individuals with longer participation in organized physical activity have higher PL levels and do males and females differ in PL levels. The sample comprised 561 individuals (321 females, 240 males) aged 27.65±12.13 years. PL levels were assessed by the Croatian version of the Perceived Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPLQ-Cro). Demographic characteristics included age, gender, and years of involvement in organized physical activity. Gender differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test and effect sizes. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to determine associations between study variables. Males had significantly higher PL levels compared to females (83.10±16.17 for males and 74.27±20.07 for females, Z=-6.88, p=0.001). Years of organized physical activity were associated with PL levels (R=0.48, p=0.001) in the total sample as well in males (R=0.55, p<0.001) and females (R=0.24, p<0.01) separately. The finding that years of organized physical activity are associated with total PL supports the theory that PL is the cornerstone for participating in lifetime physical activity. The results of this study emphasize the importance of introducing the concept of PL in numerous institutions and organizations connected with organized physical activity.


physical exercise, health behaviors, lifestyle medicine, well-being, older individuals

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