Enter your details:
Thank you for subscribing.
Subscribe to our newsletter!

David Allen Y. Puen1, Alvin George C. Cobar1, Heildenberg C. Dimarucot2, Rhene A. Camarador3

1Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Schools Physical Education Program, Quezon City, Philippines
2San Beda University Manila, Human Kinetics Department, Manila, Philippines
3Polytechnic University of the Philippines, College of Human Kinetics, Manila, Philippines

Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity of College Students in Manila, Philippines during the COVID-19 Community Quarantine: An Online Survey

Sport Mont 2021, 19(2), 101-106 | DOI: 10.26773/smj.210617


This study aimed to identify the physical activity barriers affecting college students and analyse how they differ between types of schools (private colleges-universities and government-state universities), and to improve schools’ online distance learning physical education programmes in the Philippines. One hundred fifty (N=150) officially enrolled students participated in the study, from private and state universities, composed of athletes, non-athletes, and inactive athletes. With the use of the Barriers to Being Active Quiz, comprising seven (7) barriers (Lack of Time (LT), Social Influence (SI), Lack of Energy (LE), Lack of Willpower (LW), Fear of Injury (FI), Lack of Skill (LS) and Lack of Resources (LR)), responses were collected adapted through online administration. After the response collection, results show high mean scores in LR and significantly low scores in FI and LS barriers among private and state university students. Private and State University students differ from each other significantly (p<0.05) in the barriers SI, LW and LR, with state university students exhibiting greater mean scores. Active athletes possessed significantly lower scores during quarantine in most barriers (LT, SI, LE, LW, LS and LR), while inactive athletes exhibited the highest in FI. Further studies and examination of online physical education programmes are recommended to help students counter the reduced physical activity during quarantine, aside from strengthening government encouragement to those without access to exercise opportunities.


physical activity, COVID-19, quarantine, barriers

View full article
(PDF – 406KB)


Bi, J., Zhang, J., Ren, Y., Du, Z., Zhang, Y., Liu, C., . . . Wu, R. (2020). Exercise hormone irisin mitigates endothelial barrier dysfunction and microvascular leakage-related diseases. JCI Insight, 5(13) https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.136277

Call, C. C., Roberts, S. R., Schumacher, L. M., Remmert, J. E., Kerrigan, S. G., & Butryn, M. L. (2020). Perceived barriers to physical activity during and after a behavioural weight loss programme. Obes Sci Pract, 6, 10-18. https://doi.org/10.1002/osp4.373

Campbell, J. P., & Turner, J. E. (2018). Debunking the Myth of Exercise-Induced Immune Suppression: Redefining the Impact of Exercise on Immunological Health across the Lifespan. Front. Immunol., 9, 648. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00648

Constandt, B., Thibaut, E., De Bosscher, V., Scheerder, J., Ricour, M., & Willem, A. (2020). Exercising in times of lockdown: An analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on levels and patterns of exercise among adults in belgium. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114144

Costa, F. F., Rosário, W. R., Ribeiro Farias, A. C., de Souza, R. G., Duarte Gondim, R. S., & Barroso, W. A. (2020). Metabolic syndrome and COVID-19: An update on the associated comorbidities and proposed therapies. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14(5), 809-814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.06.016

Damiot, A., Pinto, A. J., Turner, J. E., & Gualano, B. (2020). Immunological Implications of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Gerontology, 66, 431-438. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509216

El-Missiry, M. A., El-Missiry, Z., & Othman, A. I. (2020). Melatonin is a potential adjuvant to improve clinical outcomes in individuals with obesity and diabetes with coexistence of Covid-19. European journal of pharmacology, 882, 173329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173329

Froldi, G., & Dorigo, P. (2020). Endothelial dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Gender and age influences. Medical Hypotheses, 144, 110015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110015

Giustino, V., Parroco, A. M., Gennaro, A., Musumeci, G., Palma, A., & Battaglia, G. (2020). Physical Activity Levels and Related Energy Expenditure during COVID-19 Quarantine among the Sicilian Active Population: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey Study. Sustainability, 12(11), 4356. MDPI AG. doi.org/10.3390/su12114356

He, M., Xian, Y., Lv, X., He, J., & Ren, Y. (2020). Changes in Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle during the Semi-lockdown Period after the Outbreak of COVID-19 in China: An Online Survey. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness, 1–6. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.237

King, A. J., Burke, L. M., Halson, S. L., & Hawley, J. A. (2020). The challenge of maintaining metabolic health during a global pandemic. Sports Medicine, 50(7), 1233-1241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01295-8

Lim, L., Fong, L. M., Hariram, J., Lee, Y. W., & Tor, P. C. (2020). COVID-19, a pandemic that affects more than just physical health: Two case reports. Asian journal of psychiatry, 53, 102200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102200

Lippi, G., Henry, B. M., & Sanchis-Gomar, F. (2020). Physical inactivity and cardiovascular disease at the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 27(9), 906-908. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487320916823

Mariam, A., & Mazin, H. (2019). Working experience and perceived physical activity and exercise barriers. Sport Mont, 17(2), 47-52. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.190608

Matias, T., Dominski, F. H., & Marks, D. F. (2020). Human needs in COVID-19 isolation. Journal of Health Psychology, 25(7), 871-882. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105320925149

Maugeri, G., Castrogiovanni, P., Battaglia, G., Pippi, R., D’Agata, V., Palma, A., . . . Musumeci, G. (2020). The impact of physical activity on psychological health during covid-19 pandemic in italy. Heliyon, 6(6), e04315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04315

Nandy, K., Salunke, A., Pathak, S. K., Pandey, A., Doctor, C., Puj, K., . . . Warikoo, V. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of various comorbidities on serious events. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14(5), 1017-1025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.06.064

Neidich, S. D., Green, W. D., Rebeles, J., Karlsson, E. A., Schultz-Cherry, S., Noah, T. L., Chakladar, S., Hudgens, M. G., Weir, S. S., & Beck, M. A. (2017). Increased risk of influenza among vaccinated adults who are obese. International journal of obesity, 41(9), 1324–1330. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2017.131

Pecanha, T., Goessler, K. F., Roschel, H., & Gualano, B. (2020). Social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic can increase physical inactivity and the global burden of cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 318(6), H1441-H1446. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00268.2020

Pedralli, M. L., Marschner, R. A., Kollet, D. P., Neto, S. G., Eibel, B., Tanaka, H., & Lehnen, A. M. (2020). Different exercise training modalities produce similar endothelial function improvements in individuals with prehypertension or hypertension: A randomised clinical trial exercise, endothelium and blood pressure. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 7628. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64365-x

Pitones-Rubio, V., Chávez-Cortez, E. G., Hurtado-Camarena, A., González-Rascón, A., & Serafín-Higuera, N. (2020). Is periodontal disease a risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness? Medical Hypotheses, 144, 109969. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109969

Rosselli, M., Ermini, E., Tosi, B., Boddi, M., Stefani, L., Toncelli, L., & Modesti, P. A. (2020). Gender differences in barriers to physical activity among adolescents. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 30(9), 1582-1589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.05.005

Schnitzer, M., Schöttl, S. E., Kopp, M., & Barth, M. (2020). COVID-19 stay-at-home order in tyrol, austria: Sports and exercise behaviour in change? Public Health, 185, 218-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.06.042

Sutcliffe, J. H., & Greenberger, P. A. (2020). Identifying psychological difficulties in college athletes. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 8(7), 2216-2219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.03.006

Thakur, K., Kumar, N., & Sharma, N. R. (2020). Effect of the pandemic and lockdown on mental health of children. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 87(7), 552. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03308-w

Tornese, G., Ceconi, V., Monasta, L., Carletti, C., Faleschini, E., & Barbi, E. (2020). Glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus during COVID-19 quarantine and the role of in-home physical activity. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, 22(6), 462-467. https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2020.0169

Zaki, N., Alashwal, H., & Ibrahim, S. (2020). Association of hypertension, diabetes, stroke, cancer, kidney disease, and high-cholesterol with COVID-19 disease severity and fatality: A systematic review. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14(5), 1133-1142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.07.005

Zbinden-Foncea, H., Francaux, M., Deldicque, L., & Hawley, J. A. (2020). Does high cardiorespiratory fitness confer some protection against proinflammatory responses after infection by SARS-CoV-2? Obesity, 28(8), 1378-1381. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22849