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Mohd Helmi Kamal1,2, Hosni Hasan1

1Universiti Teknologi MARA, Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Shah Alam, Malaysia
2Ministry of Health Malaysia, Management Training Division, Putrajaya, Malaysia

Effect of Different Instructions on Learning Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Skills among Physiotherapy Students

Sport Mont 2024, 22(2), 147-151 | DOI: 10.26773/smj.240720


This study aims to assess the effect of different instructions on learning proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) skills among physiotherapy students. Twenty-five (n=25) first-year undergraduate physiotherapy students were randomly assigned into two groups. The first group (n=12) was a live demonstration group watching the instructor performing the technique, while the second group (n=13) was a video demonstration group watching a pre-recorded video by the same instructor. Both groups were shown identical eight (8) patterns of PNF skills. After watching the skill, the students in both groups were asked to perform in an isolation room using all the techniques shown to measure their psychomotor skills using the standard Objective Structured Clinical Examination form. The test revealed an insignificant difference in the total performance score between live and video demonstrations of PNF skills among physiotherapy students. Live demonstration group (Mean=59.50±25.69) and video demonstration group (Mean=75.00±13.71), U=48.5, z=-1.605, p>0.05, r=0.321. The finding of this study indicates that live and video demonstration groups are on par in performing the PNF skills. Although video demonstration may reduce time teaching and at the same time ensure the students learn motor skills accordingly. The current study suggests that video demonstration should be employed as an adjunct to pre-, during, and post-live demonstration to augment knowledge retention. This finding can also be a reference for policymakers or higher institutions to decide to change the existing policy for new norms after the breakout of COVID-19 as there is no difference in students’ performance between these two groups.


Covid-19, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, live instructions, video instructions

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