Enter your details:
Thank you for subscribing.
Subscribe to our newsletter!

Tjaša Ribnikar1, Anja Maguša1, Ziga Kozinc1,2

1University of Primorska, Faculty of Health Sciences, Polje 42, SI-6310 Izola, Slovenia
2University of Primorska, Andrej Marušič Institute, Muzejski trg 2, SI-6000 Koper, Slovenia

The Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test: A Scoping Review of Reference Values, Reliability, Determinants, and Practical Application

Sport Mont 2024, 22(1), 137-146 | DOI: 10.26773/smj.240219


The aim of this scoping review was to comprehensively examine the Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (UQYBT), including reference values, reliability, determinants, and its practical application. By including studies irrespective of publication date, participant demographics, or research purpose, provided they were in English and incorporated UQYBT as a primary or secondary variable, an extensive dataset was collected. The focus was on limb-length-normalized results to establish standardized reference metrics. Reliability studies highlighted the UQYBT’s consistency across sessions and raters. The application of UQYBT to assess injury risk is questionable. Studies assessing its relationship with sports performance have also yielded varying results. UQYBT seems to be sensitive to various exercise based-interventions, as shown by several clinical trials. This review furnishes practitioners and clinicians with valuable insights for the application of UQYBT in sports and healthcare settings.


injury prevention, athletic performance, reference values, scoping review, upper limb

View full article
(PDF – 476KB)


Abdelraouf, O. R., Abdel-Aziem, A. A., Ghally, S. A., Osama, L. A., Dawood, R. S., Yehia, A. M., … & Radwan, R. E. (2022). Innovative Use of Biodex Balance System to Improve Dynamic Stabilization and Function of Upper Quarter in Recreational Weightlifters: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 58(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58111631

Arora, C., Singh, P., & Varghese, V. (2021). Biomechanics of core musculature on upper extremity performance in basketball players. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 27, 127–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2021.02.023

Bartolomeu, R. F., Sampaio, T., Oliveira, J. P., Barbosa, T. M., & Morais, J. E. (2023). Association between the Upper Quarter Dynamic Balance, Anthropometrics, Kinematics, and Swimming Speed. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 8(3), 96. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030096

Bauer, J., Gruber, M., & Muehlbauer, T. (2022). Correlations between core muscle strength endurance and upper-extremity performance in adolescent male sub-elite handball players. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2022.1050279

Bauer, J., Hagen, M., Weisz, N., & Muehlbauer, T. (2020). The Influence of Fatigue on Throwing and YBT-UQ Performance in Male Adolescent Handball Players. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.00081

Bauer, J., Kammermeier, H., Schwiertz, G., & Muehlbauer, T. (2021). Comparison of lower and upper quarter y balance test performance in adolescent students with borderline intellectual functioning compared to age-and sex-matched controls. Children, 8(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/CHILDREN8090805

Bauer, J., Panzer, S., Gruber, M., & Muehlbauer, T. (2023). Associations between upper quarter Y-balance test performance and sport-related injuries in adolescent handball players. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2023.1076373

Bauer, J., Panzer, S., & Muehlbauer, T. (2021). Side differences of upper quarter Y balance test performance in sub-elite young male and female handball players with different ages. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 13(1), 141. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00364-3

Bauer, J., Schedler, S., Fischer, S., & Muehlbauer, T. (2020). Relationship between Upper Quarter y Balance Test performance and throwing proficiency in adolescent Olympic handball players. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-020-00199-4

Bauer, J., Schwiertz, G., & Muehlbauer, T. (2021). Diverging Playing Positions do not Lead to Differences in YBT-UQ Performance in Youth Handball Players. Sports Medicine International Open, 05(03), E99–E103. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1647-7174

Bennett, H., Chalmers, S., Milanese, S., & Fuller, J. (2022). The association between Y-balance test scores, injury, and physical performance in elite adolescent Australian footballers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 25(4), 306–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2021.10.014

Beyranvand, R., Mirnasouri, R., Mollahoseini, S., & Mostofi, S. (2017). The functional stability of the upper limbs in healthy and rounded shoulder gymnasts. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 9(3), 279–290.

Bhat, R., & Moiz, J. A. (2013). Comparison of dynamic balance in collegiate field hockey and football players using star excursion balance test. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(3), 221–229. https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.34287

Biaggi, K., Farmer, B., Hobson, M., Self, C., & Grindstaff, T. L. (2021). Shoulder Strength and Range of Motion in Healthy Collegiate Softball Players. Journal of Athletic Training, 56(10), 1086–1093. https://doi.org/10.4085/301-20

Borms, D., & Cools, A. (2018). Upper-Extremity Functional Performance Tests: Reference Values for Overhead Athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(6), 433–441. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0573-1388

Borms, D., Maenhout, A., & Cools, A. M. (2016). Upper quadrant field tests and isokinetic upper limb strength in overhead athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 51(10), 789–796. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-51.12.06

Bullock, G. S., Brookreson, N., Knab, A. M., & Butler, R. J. (2017). Examining fundamental movement competency and closed-chain upper-extremity dynamic balance in swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(6), 1544–1551. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001627

Bullock, G. S., Schmitt, A. C., Chasse, P. M., Little, B. A., Diehl, L. H., & Butler, R. J. (2018). The relationship between trunk rotation, upper quarter dynamic stability, and pitch velocity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(1), 261–266. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001772

Butler, R., Arms, J., Reiman, M., Plisky, P., Kiesel, K., Taylor, D., & Queen, R. (2014). Sex differences in dynamic closed kinetic chain upper quarter function in collegiate swimmers. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(4), 442–446. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.17

Butler, R., Myers, H., Black, D., Kiesel, K., Plisky, P., Moorman, C., & Queen, R. (2014). Bilateral differences in the upper quarter function of high school aged baseball and softball players. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 9(4), 518–524. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25133080%0Ahttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC4127514

Campbell, K. E., Parent, E. C., Crumback, D. J., & Hebert, J. S. (2022). Predicting Upper Quadrant Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Military: A Cohort Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 54(2), 337–344. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002789

Chan, E. W. M., Hamid, M. S. A., Nadzalan, A. M., & Hafiz, E. (2020). Abdominal muscle activation: An EMG study of the Sahrmann five-level core stability test. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal, 40(2), 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1013702520500080

Chasse, P., Bullock, G. S., Schmitt, A. C., Little, B. A., Diehl, L. H., & Butler, R. J. (2018). the Relationship Between Trunk Rotation, Upper Quarter Dynamic Stability, and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Overhead Athlete Shoulder and Elbow Score in Division I Collegiate Pitchers. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 13(5), 819–827. https://doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20180819

Clarke, F., Koutedakis, Y., Wilson, M., & Wyon, M. (2019). Associations between balance ability and dance performance using field balance tests. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 34(3), 154–160. https://doi.org/10.21091/mppa.2019.3026

Contemori, S., Biscarini, A., Botti, F. M., Busti, D., Panichi, R., & Pettorossi, V. E. (2018). Sensorimotor control of the shoulder in professional volleyball players with isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 27(4), 371–379. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2016-0183

Coughlan, G., Fullam, K., Delahunt, E., Gissane, C., & Caulfield, B. (2012). A Comparison Between Performance on Selected Directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Y Balance Test. Journal of Athletic Training, 47(4), 366–371. http://myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1130649597?accountid=14771%0Ahttp://bf4dv7zn3u.search.serialssolutions.com/directLink?&atitle=A+Comparison+Between+Performance+on+Selected+Directions+of+the+Star+Excursion+B

Cramer, J., Quintero, M., Rhinehart, A., Rutherford, C., Nasypany, A., May, J., & Baker, R. T. (2017). Exploration of score agreement on a modified upper quarter y-balance test kit as compared to the upper quarter y-balance test. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 12(1), 117–124. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28217422

Dittmer, A., Tomchuk, D., & Fontenot, D. R. (2021). Immediate effects of limb rotational kinesio tape application on upper quarter Y-balance test scores. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 30(4), 552–558. https://doi.org/10.1123/JSR.2019-0145

Falsone, S. A., Gross, M. T., Guskiewicz, K. M., & Schneider, R. A. (2002). One-Arm Hop Test: Reliability and Effects of Arm Dominance. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 32(3), 98–103. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2002.32.3.98

Fleischmann, C., Yanovich, R., Milgrom, C., Eliyahu, U., Gez, H., Heled, Y., & Finestone, A. S. (2023). Utility of preinduction tests as predictors of attrition in infantry recruits: A prospective study. BMJ Military Health, 169(3), 225–230. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2021-001776

Goldbeck, T. G., & Davies, G. J. (2000). Test-Retest Reliability of the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test: A Clinical Field Test. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 9(1), 35–45. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.9.1.35

Gorman, P. P., Butler, R. J., Plisky, P. J., & Kiesel, K. B. (2012). Upper quarter y balance test: Reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(11), 3043–3048. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182472fdb

Gottlieb, U., Kelman, D., & Springer, S. (2018). Evaluation of two simple functional tests to predict attrition from combat service in female light infantry soldiers. Medical Science Monitor, 24, 9334–9341. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.911672

Gribble, P. A., Hertel, J., & Plisky, P. (2012). Using the Star Excursion Balance Test to Assess Dynamic Postural-Control Deficits and Outcomes in Lower Extremity Injury: A Literature and Systematic Review. Journal of Athletic Training, 47(3), 339–357. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-47.3.08

Guirelli, A. R., dos Santos, J. M., Cabral, E. M. G., Pinto, J. P. C., De Lima, G. A., & Felicio, L. R. (2021). Relationship between upper limb physical performance tests and muscle strength of scapular, shoulder and spine stabilizers: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 27, 612–619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2021.05.014

Hazar, Z., Ulug, N., & Yuksel, I. (2014). Upper quarter Y-balance test score of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(11). https://doi.org/10.1177/2325967114S00275

Hegedus, E. J., Vidt, M. E., & Tarara, D. T. (2014). The best combination of physical performance and self-report measures to capture function in three patient groups. Physical Therapy Reviews, 19(3), 196–203. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743288X13Y.0000000121

Heinbaugh, E. M., Smith, D. T., Zhu, Q., Wilson, M. A., & Dai, B. (2015). The effect of time-of-day on static and dynamic balance in recreational athletes. Sports Biomechanics, 14(3), 361–373. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2015.1084036

Hrysomallis, C. (2007). Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk. Sports Medicine, 37(6), 547–556. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737060-00007

Hrysomallis, C. (2011). Balance ability and athletic performance. Sports Medicine, 41(3), 221–232.

Jha, P., Nuhmani, S., Kapoor, G., Muslem, W. H. Al, Joseph, R., Kachanathu, S. J., & Alsaadi, S. M. (2022). Efficacy of core stability training on upper extremity performance in collegiate athletes. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions, 22(4), 498–503.

Jung, D. E., & Moon, D. C. (2015). Effect of the application of local vibration in scaption on joint stability. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(1), 115–116. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.115

Kiers, H., Van Dieën, J., Dekkers, H., Wittink, H., & Vanhees, L. (2013). A systematic review of the relationship between physical activities in sports or daily life and postural sway in upright stance. Sports Medicine, 43(11), 1171–1189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0082-5

Kim, Y., Lee, J. M., Wellsandt, E., & Rosen, A. B. (2020). Comparison of shoulder range of motion, strength, and upper quarter dynamic balance between NCAA division I overhead athletes with and without a history of shoulder injury. Physical Therapy in Sport, 42, 53–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2019.12.007

Kokinda, M., Jesensky, M., Kandrac, R., Kicura, D., Turek, M., & Chovanova, E. (2018). Examination of age-related core stability and dynamic balance in hockey players. Sport Mont, 16(2), 21–26. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.180604

Krysak, S., Harnish, C. R., Plisky, P. J., Knab, A. M., & Bullock, G. S. (2019). Fundamental Movement and Dynamic Balance Disparities Among Varying Skill Levels in Golfers. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 14(4), 537–545. https://doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20190537

Mendez-Rebolledo, G., Ager, A. L., Ledezma, D., Montanez, J., Guerrero-Henriquez, J., & Cruz-Montecinos, C. (2022). Role of active joint position sense on the upper extremity functional performance tests in college volleyball players. PeerJ, 10. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13564

Mendez-Rebolledo, G., Cools, A. M., Ramirez-Campillo, R., Quiroz-Aldea, E., & Habechian, F. A. P. (2022). Association Between Lower Trapezius Isometric Strength and Y-Balance Test Upper Quarter Performance in College Volleyball Players. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 31(2), 140–145. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2021-0048

Mussigmann, T., Lagniaux, F., Trouveroy, G., Drigny, J., Quesada, C., & Edouard, P. (2020). Association between sensorimotor function and shoulder injury: Prospective pilot study in a cohort of handballers. Journal de Traumatologie Du Sport, 37(1), 10–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jts.2019.12.007

Myers, H., Poletti, M., & Butler, R. J. (2017). Difference in functional performance on the Upper-Quarter Y-Balance Test between high school baseball players and wrestlers. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 26(3), 253–259. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2015-0168

Nuhmani, S. (2022). Correlation between Core Stability and Upper-Extremity Performance in Male Collegiate Athletes. Medicina (Lithuania), 58(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58080982

Pires, E. D., & Camargo, P. R. (2018). Analysis of the kinetic chain in asymptomatic individuals with and without scapular dyskinesis. Clinical Biomechanics, 54, 8–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2018.02.017

Plisky, P. J., Gorman, P. P., Butler, R. J., Kiesel, K. B., Underwood, F. B., & Elkins, B. (2009). The reliability of an instrumented device for measuring components of the star excursion balance test. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy : NAJSPT, 4(2), 92–99. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21509114%0Ahttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC2953327

Powden, C. J., Dodds, T. K., & Gabriel, E. H. (2019). the Reliability of the Star Excursion Balance Test and Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test in Healthy Adults: a Systematic Review. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 14(5), 683–694. https://doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20190683

Pulido, V., Alvar, B., & Behm, D. (2023). BodybladeTM Training in Athletes with Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 18(1), 188–198. https://doi.org/10.26603/001c.65900

Ruffe, N. J., Sorce, S. R., Rosenthal, M. D., & Rauh, M. J. (2019). Lower Quarter- and Upper Quarter Y Balance Tests As Predictors of Running-Related Injuries in High School Cross-Country Runners. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 14(5), 695–706. https://doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20190695

Sabchuk, R. A. C., Bento, P. C. B., & Rodacki, A. L. F. (2012). Comparison between field balance tests and force platform. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte, 18(6), 404–408. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922012000600012

Saccol, M. F., Zanca, G. G., Machado, R. O., Teixeira, L. P., Löbell, R., Cools, A., & Mota, C. B. (2022). Shoulder Strength and Upper Body Field Performance Tests in Young Female Handball and Volleyball Athletes: Are There Differences Between Sports? Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 31(2), 191–198. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2021-0221

Salo, T. D., & Chaconas, E. (2017). The Effect of Fatigue on Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test Scores in Recreational Weightlifters: A Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 12(2), 199–205. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28515974%0Ahttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC5380862

Savitzky, J. A., Abrams, L. R., Galluzzo, N. A., Ostrow, S. P., Protosow, T. J., Liu, S. A., … & Friel, K. (2021). Effects of a Novel Rotator Cuff Rehabilitation Device on Shoulder Strength and Function. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 35(12), 3355–3363. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003347

Schwartzkopf-Phifer, K., Leach, S., Whetstone, K., Brown, K., & Matsel, K. (2021). The effect of a novel training program to improve trunk stability push up performance in active females: A pilot study. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 16(5), 1345–1354. https://doi.org/10.26603/001c.28055

Schwiertz, G., Bauer, J., & Muehlbauer, T. (2021). Upper Quarter Y Balance test performance: Normative values for healthy youth aged 10 to 17 years. PLoS ONE, 16(6 June). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253144

Schwiertz, G., Beurskens, R., & Muehlbauer, T. (2020). Discriminative validity of the lower and upper quarter Y balance test performance: a comparison between healthy trained and untrained youth. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-020-00220-w

Schwiertz, G., Brueckner, D., Schedler, S., Kiss, R., & Muehlbauer, T. (2019). Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test in Healthy Adolescents Aged 12 To 17 Years. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 14(6), 927–934. https://doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20190927

Silva Barros, B. R. da, Cavalcanti, I. B. S., Silva Júnior, N. da, & Sousa, C. de O. (2022). Correlation between upper limb function and clinical measures of shoulder and trunk mobility and strength in overhead athletes with shoulder pain. Physical Therapy in Sport, 55, 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2022.02.001

Silva, E. R., Maffulli, N., Migliorini, F., Santos, G. M., de Menezes, F. S., & Okubo, R. (2022). Function, strength, and muscle activation of the shoulder complex in Crossfit practitioners with and without pain: a cross-sectional observational study. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-022-02915-x

Singla, D., & Hussain, M. E. (2021). Variations in cricket players’ upper body dynamic balance across different levels of competition. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 33(5). https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2019-0015

Singla, D., Hussain, M. E., & Bhati, P. (2018). Correlation Between Upper Body Balance, Muscle Strength, and Power in Cricketers Belonging to Different Age Groups. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 17(3), 160–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2018.03.002

Tabasi, S. R., Norasteh, A. A., Mirzaei, B., & Zarei, H. (2022). Proprioception and dynamic balance performance in wrestlers: Freestyle vs. Greco-Romana. Science and Sports, 37(5–6), 494.e1-494.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2021.06.011

Taylor, J. B., Wright, A. A., Smoliga, J. M., DePew, J. T., & Hegedus, E. J. (2016). Upper-extremity physical-performance tests in college athletes. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 25(2), 146–154. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2014-0296

Teyhen, D. S., Riebel, M. A., McArthur, D. R., Savini, M., Jones, M. J., Goffar, S. L., … & Plisky, P. J. (2014). Normative Data and the Influence of Age and Gender on Power, Balance, Flexibility, and Functional Movement in Healthy Service Members. Military Medicine, 179(4), 413–420. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1522546748?accountid=13828%0Ahttp://find.shef.ac.uk/openurl/44SFD/44SFD_services_page?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&sid=ProQ:ProQ%3Asciencejournals&atitle=Normative+Data+and+

Tooth, C., Schwartz, C., Ann, C., Croisier, J. L., Gofflot, A., Stephen, B., & Forthomme, B. (2022). Upper limb functional testing in athletes: A Delphi study. Shoulder and Elbow. https://doi.org/10.1177/17585732221101880

Tooth, C., Schwartz, C., Gofflot, A., Bornheim, S., Croisier, J. L., & Forthomme, B. (2023). Preseason shoulder screening in volleyball players: is there any change during season? JSES International, 7(4), 662–667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2023.03.022

Trajković, N., Kozinc, Ž., Smajla, D., & Šarabon, N. (2021). Relationship between ankle strength and range of motion and postural stability during single-leg quiet stance in trained athletes. Scientific Reports, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91337-6

Velarde-Sotres, Á., Bores-Cerezal, A., Mecías-Calvo, M., Carvajal-Altamiranda, S., & Calleja-González, J. (2021). Validity, reliability and reproducibility of octobalance test as tool to measure the upper limb compared to modified-upper quarter y-balance test. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105057

Westrick, R. B., Miller, J. M., Carow, S. D., & Gerber, J. P. (2012). Exploration of the y-balance test for assessment of upper quarter closed kinetic chain performance. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 7(2), 139–147. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22530188%0Ahttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC3325634

Williamson, J. D., Lawson, B. L., Sigley, D., Nasypany, A., & Baker, R. T. (2019). Intra- and nter-rater reliability for limb length measurement and trial error assessment of the upper quarter y-balance test in healthy adults. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 14(5), 707–714. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31598408

Xu, H. R., Zhang, Y. H., Mao, Y., Ngo, T. L., Zhang, Q., He, G. … & Wang, X. Q. (2023). Validity and reliability of upper extremity star excursion balance test in adolescent swimmers. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 21(2), 210–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2023.02.003

Yildiz, T. I., Turhan, E., Ocguder, D. A., Yaman, F., Huri, G., & Duzgun, I. (2022). Functional Performance Tests Reveal Promising Results at 6 Months After Shoulder Stabilization Surgery. Sports Health. https://doi.org/10.1177/19417381221141075

Zarei, M., Eshghi, S., & Hosseinzadeh, M. (2021). The effect of a shoulder injury prevention programme on proprioception and dynamic stability of young volleyball players; a randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00300-5

Zemková, E. (2022). Physiological Mechanisms of Exercise and Its Effects on Postural Sway: Does Sport Make a Difference? Frontiers in Physiology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.792875